National Policies on Social Forestry
- Legal framework of CFM: National Working Group on Community Forestry Management (NWG-CFM), 1998. Forest Protection and Development Law of 2004, Forest Development Strategy of Viet Nam 2006-2020, Decree 48/2007ND-CP on Forest Valuation, Decree 99/2010/ND-CP on policy on payments for forest environmental services
- Law on Forest Protection and Development 2003 recognized village communities as legal entities
- The key policy measures are as follows:
- Forestry development is to integrate the management, protection, and appropriate utilization of resources, starting from afforestation and reforestation;
- Forestry development is to make significant contribution to economic growth, poverty reduction and environmental protection;
- Sustainable management, utilization and development of forests are the foundation for forestry development;
- Forestry development has to base on speeding up and making more profound the policy related to socialization of forestry activities, and attracting investment resources for forest protection and development.
- Since the passing of the laws, interest in community forestry is increased and the procedures for assigning forests to villages and their rights and responsibilities have been clarified. The forest Protection Department (FPD) estimated in 2001 that a total forest area of 2.34 million Ha could be available to be allocated or contracted to local communities.
- In combination with recent developments pertaining to poverty alleviation and public administrative reforms, and the achievements of the ‘Community Forest Management Pilot Program’ with TFF funded (completed in June 2009) enabling environment for making rural communities key actors in the management, protection and utilization of natural production and less critical protection forests has been established. This includes several guidelines and a comprehensive approach integrating aspects of land use planning, forest land allocation, benefit-sharing arrangements, forest planning and management modalities and financial administration.
- Recognizing that natural forests can provide significant environmental services (e.g. carbon sequestration, watershed protection), the Government of Vietnam has expended efforts to introduce payments schemes for providing environmental services (PES). PES is being piloted in Son La and Lam Dong provinces based on Prime Minister Decision 380/QD-TTg (10/4/2008). It is expected that PES schemes can be implemented for watershed protection by 2010. Furthermore, the UN-REDD program for Vietnam plans to build capacity on carbon financing through pilots in two districts in Lam Dong province that demonstrate effective approaches to planning and implementing measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including participatory monitoring of carbon stocks, and ensure fair and equitable distribution of benefits. Carbon financing may provide considerable opportunities for CFM.
Priorities of Community Forestry in Vet Nam for the period 2006 – 2020
- Piloting and developing CFM: 2.5 million Ha to be allocated to communities for management by 2010, and 4 million Ha by 2020;
- Up-scaling CFM from 40 villages to new villages and piloting PES schemes are to take place in a small number of selected communes and villages in different geographical regions of the country;
- Monitoring, assessing and draw lesson learnt on CFM implementation in Vietnam;
- Piloting PES schemes in a small number of selected villages where community forestry management practice are applied;
- Promoting development of forest product (timber and NTFPs) for commercial purpose;
- Mainstreaming Commune-level forest land-use plans for their REDD and PES for watershed protection potential.
Community Forest Policies to be developed
- Setting benefit-sharing mechanisms in Community Forestry Management;
- SFM as a tool for determining forest increment and benefit sharing;
- Proposed mechanism for benefit sharing among forest users;
- Acknowledged customary rules/regulations to have strong effectiveness on enforcement
- Clear boundary determination and announcement with neighboring villages.
National Policy Addressing Climate Change
- Land with forest will account for39,5% by the year 2010 and 43% by 2020
- Re-defining and classifying forest categories by functions to ensure that forests not only meet demand on economic development but also environmental protection
- Establishment of forest protection and special-use forest areas, including mangrove and Melaleuca forests
Social Forestry Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption
- Local participation in forest protection, biodiversity conservation and environmental services development program with an overall goal to protect forest and conserve biodiversity efficiently is highly appreciated
- With the active involvement of different stakeholders at grass root level the estimated annual revenue from environmental services will increase reaching more than USD 2 billion by 2020
- CFM will play very important role for forest resources quality and quantity improvement
Key Activities regarding to Social Forestry in Vietnam
- Forest conditions, timber harvesting volumes and local incomes generated are monitored regularly at appropriate intervals in the 64 communities where CFM was piloted during the implementation of the ‘Community Forest Management Pilot Program’.
- At least 15,000 Ha of natural forests (at least 20 percent have medium to high forest conditions) are allocated to new villages in five selected communes that took part in ‘Community Forest Management Pilot Program’.
- In the new villages, CFM plans including CFPD agreements are prepared while plans are implemented during the second year of the project
- Data related to CFM implementation, including the use of Community Forestry Protection and Develo0pment funds are analyzed, documented and widely disseminated.
- Functional knowledge management system is developed and operational.
- Commune-level forest land-use plans are mainstreamed for their REDD and PES for watershed protection potential.
- Awareness raising on PES (including carbon financing) is raised at provincial, district, commune and village levels.
- Participatory carbon-stock monitoring system is in place
- Equitable and transparent benefit-sharing payment systems are developed.
- Market demand for selected NTFPs is assessed.
- Availability and abundance of selected NTFPs and commercial timber species are assessed in forests allocated to selected villages
- Local processing opportunities are explored and marketing arrangements established.
- Community timber logging for commercial purpose is tried out in selected villages
- Participation of local community in the REDD+ implementation, including the Free, Prior, Inform Consent (FPIC)
- Policy enhancement to adopt Climate Change mitigation and adaptation to enable local participation
- Development of local Action Plan to respond to climate change with appropriate approach that local communities could be adequately consulted
- The development of the national REDD+ Strategy and operationalization of the REDD+ implementation ensures that local people can actively participate in
- Promote the cooperation with regional organizations working on social and community forestry, such as ASFN, RECOFTTC, APFC/FAO, APFNet, etc.
- Sharing information in the region on REDD+ implementation related to CFM and social forestry.
- Integrate relevant programs, projects, such as PES, REDD+, Forest certification programs with community forestry and social forestry programs for Climate Change mitigation and adaptation.
- Institutional development of CFM in Vietnam
- Policy, capacity Building Needs Assessment of CFM, support policy dialogues, meetings and relevant multi-stakeholder processes, support the process to formulate new regulation, instructions and guidelines on CFM, and knowledge and database development for CFM
- Research on Non timber forest products (NTFPs) development in Vietnam.
- In order to improve livelihoods and income there is a need to promote NTFP enterprises and marketing. This is not very developed in Vietnam. If people have enough income and benefits from NTFPs they will protect forests. The research will cover all regions in Vietnam with selected sites in each region.
- Pilot study on CFM, in order to expand the CFM models to the other communes in mangrove area along the costal and lime stone area and improving the livelihood of local community in the mangrove forest area
- Experience sharing through exchange visits, rationale: Vietnam demanded for some exchange visits to learn about topics such as mangrove forests to other ASEAN countries and in side country.